The Forms of Capital Source: The Eltan Burgos School of Economics.
Individual[ edit ] The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human perspective is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which information from the environment and ideas from the individual interact and result in internalized structures developed by learners.
He identified processes of assimilation and accommodation that are key in this interaction as individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences.
When individuals assimilate new information, they incorporate it into an already existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding; for example, they may not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an event is a fluke and is Social educational theories essay unimportant as information about the world.
In contrast, when individuals' experiences contradict their internal representations, they may change their perceptions of the experiences to fit their internal representations. According to the theory, accommodation is the process of reframing one's mental representation of the external world to fit new experiences.
Accommodation can be understood as the mechanism by which failure leads to learning: It is important to note that constructivism is not a particular pedagogy. In fact, constructivism is a theory describing how learning happens, regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture or following the instructions for building a model airplane.
In both cases, the theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. However, constructivism is often associated with pedagogic approaches that promote active learningor learning by doing.
There are many critics of "learning by doing" a. Historical developments and symbol systems, such as language, logicand mathematical systemsare inherited by the learner as a member of a particular culture and these are learned throughout the learner's life.
This also stresses the importance of the nature of the learner's social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society. Without the social interaction with other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire social meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to utilize them.
Young children develop their thinking abilities by interacting with other children, adults and the physical world. From the social constructivist viewpoint, it is thus important to take into account the background and culture of the learner throughout the learning process, as this background also helps to shape the knowledge and truth that the learner creates, discovers and attains in the learning process.
Social constructivism thus emphasizes the importance of the learner being actively involved in the learning process, unlike previous educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the instructor to teach and where the learner played a passive, receptive role.
Von Glasersfeld emphasized that learners construct their own understanding and that they do not simply mirror and reflect what they read. Learners look for meaning and will try to find regularity and order in the events of the world even in the absence of full or complete information.
This is also named after the Harkness table and involves students seated in a circle, motivating and controlling their own discussion. The teacher acts as little as possible. The students get it rolling, direct it, and focus it.
They act as a team, cooperatively, to make it work. They all participate, but not in a competitive way. Rather, they all share in the responsibility and the goals, much as any members share in any team sport. Although the goals of any discussion will change depending upon what's under discussion, some goals will always be the same: Discussion skills are important.
Everyone must be aware of how to get this discussion rolling and keep it rolling and interesting. Just as in any sport, a number of skills are necessary to work on and use at appropriate times. Everyone is expected to contribute by using these skills.
The motivation for learning[ edit ] Another crucial assumption regarding the nature of the learner concerns the level and source of motivation for learning.
According to Von Glasersfeld, sustaining motivation to learn is strongly dependent on the learner's confidence in his or her potential for learning. By experiencing the successful completion of challenging tasks, learners gain confidence and motivation to embark on more complex challenges.
In the former scenario the learner plays a passive role and in the latter scenario the learner plays an active role in the learning process.
The emphasis thus turns away from the instructor and the content, and towards the learner. The learning environment should also be designed to support and challenge the learner's thinking.
The critical goal is to support the learner in becoming an effective thinker. This can be achieved by assuming multiple roles, such as consultant and coach.
A few strategies for cooperative learning include Reciprocal Questioning: Students work together to research a particular controversy  Constructivism[ edit ] Learning is an active process[ edit ] Social constructivism, strongly influenced by Vygotsky's work, suggests that knowledge is first constructed in a social context and is then appropriated by individuals.
Kukla argues that reality is constructed by our own activities and that people, together as members of a society, invent the properties of the world.
Other constructivist scholars agree with this and emphasize that individuals make meanings through the interactions with each other and with the environment they live in. Knowledge is thus a product of humans and is socially and culturally constructed. He further states that learning is not a process that only takes place inside our minds, nor is it a passive development of our behaviors that is shaped by external forces and that meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities.Social Constructivism in the classroom Reciprocal Teaching Where a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on a topic.
Social Class and Educational Achievement Essay Plan Posted on November 18, by Karl Thompson Assess the extent to which home based, rather than school – based factors account for social class based differences in educational achievement (30).
Harvard Educational Review: a scholarly journal that discusses research, resources, and critical issues in education and teaching. According to educational theories, we discuss and compare behaviourism and constructivism in the views of knowledge, learning and instruction.
The purpose of this academic essay is to discuss, reflect and conclude on two main educational theories, constructivism and behaviourism. Three theories of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and the social learning theory.
Each of these different theories has a unique and different approach. Classical conditioning is simply learning by associate of two different stimuli. Social Contract Theory.
Social contract theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live.