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Mind—body problem The mind—body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between mindsor mental processesand bodily states or processes. Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, and these stimuli cause changes in our mental states, ultimately causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant.
Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants. The question, then, is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties.
It begins with the claim that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non- physical. In Western Philosophythe earliest discussions of dualist ideas are in the writings of Plato who maintained that humans' "intelligence" a faculty of the mind or soul could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, their physical body.
He was therefore the first to formulate the mind—body problem in the form in which it still exists today. If asked what the mind is, the average person would usually respond by identifying it with their selftheir personality, their soulor some other such entity.
They would almost certainly deny that the mind simply is the brain, or vice versa, finding the idea that there is just one ontological entity at play to be too mechanistic, or simply unintelligible. So, for example, one can reasonably ask what a burnt finger feels like, or what a blue sky looks like, or what nice music sounds like to a person.
But it is meaningless, or at least odd, to ask what a surge in the uptake of glutamate in the dorsolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex feels like.
Philosophers of mind call the subjective aspects of mental events " qualia " or "raw feels". There are qualia involved in these mental events that seem particularly difficult to reduce to anything physical. David Chalmers explains this argument by stating that we could conceivably know all the objective information about something, such as the brain states and wavelengths of light involved with seeing the color red, but still not know something fundamental about the situation — what it is like to see the color red.
Dualism must therefore explain how consciousness affects physical reality. One possible explanation is that of a miracle, proposed by Arnold Geulincx and Nicolas Malebranchewhere all mind—body interactions require the direct intervention of God. Another possible argument that has been proposed by C.
Lewis  is the Argument from Reason: Knowledge, however, is apprehended by reasoning from ground to consequent. Therefore, if monism is correct, there would be no way of knowing this—or anything else—we could not even suppose it, except by a fluke.
The zombie argument is based on a thought experiment proposed by Todd Moody, and developed by David Chalmers in his book The Conscious Mind. The basic idea is that one can imagine one's body, and therefore conceive the existence of one's body, without any conscious states being associated with this body.
Chalmers' argument is that it seems possible that such a being could exist because all that is needed is that all and only the things that the physical sciences describe about a zombie must be true of it.
Since none of the concepts involved in these sciences make reference to consciousness or other mental phenomena, and any physical entity can be by definition described scientifically via physicsthe move from conceivability to possibility is not such a large one.
It has been argued under physicalism that one must either believe that anyone including oneself might be a zombie, or that no one can be a zombie—following from the assertion that one's own conviction about being or not being a zombie is a product of the physical world and is therefore no different from anyone else's.
This argument has been expressed by Dennett who argues that "Zombies think they are conscious, think they have qualia, think they suffer pains—they are just 'wrong' according to this lamentable tradition in ways that neither they nor we could ever discover!
Seth has a clear and distinct idea of his mind as a thinking thing that has no spatial extension i. He also has a clear and distinct idea of his body as something that is spatially extended, subject to quantification and not able to think.
It follows that mind and body are not identical because they have radically different properties. A child touches a hot stove physical event which causes pain mental event and makes her yell physical eventthis in turn provokes a sense of fear and protectiveness in the caregiver mental eventand so on.
Descartes' argument crucially depends on the premise that what Seth believes to be "clear and distinct" ideas in his mind are necessarily true. Many contemporary philosophers doubt this. Freud claimed that a psychologically-trained observer can understand a person's unconscious motivations better than the person himself does.
Duhem has shown that a philosopher of science can know a person's methods of discovery better than that person herself does, while Malinowski has shown that an anthropologist can know a person's customs and habits better than the person whose customs and habits they are.
He also asserts that modern psychological experiments that cause people to see things that are not there provide grounds for rejecting Descartes' argument, because scientists can describe a person's perceptions better than the person herself can. The arrows indicate the direction of the causal interactions.
Occasionalism is not shown. Psychophysical parallelism[ edit ] Psychophysical parallelismor simply parallelism, is the view that mind and body, while having distinct ontological statuses, do not causally influence one another. Instead, they run along parallel paths mind events causally interact with mind events and brain events causally interact with brain events and only seem to influence each other.
Although Leibniz was an ontological monist who believed that only one type of substance, the monadexists in the universe, and that everything is reducible to it, he nonetheless maintained that there was an important distinction between "the mental" and "the physical" in terms of causation.
He held that God had arranged things in advance so that minds and bodies would be in harmony with each other. This is known as the doctrine of pre-established harmony. While body and mind are different substances, causes whether mental or physical are related to their effects by an act of God's intervention on each specific occasion.Start studying Mind/Body Theory.
|Hire Writer Psychological or mental properties such as pain are viewed as physical according to physicalists as they believe that the physical aspect of pain is casually closed by the major physical properties. According to Kim,supervenience tries to bring out the identical aspect between the physical properties and psychological properties.|
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. PLAY. What is the difference between physical properties and mental states? Physical properties are public and measurable; mental states are experimented from a first person perspective, private and difficult to .
Physical properties describe the substance itself. Examples of these properties are properties such as melting point and boiling point. A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance is called a physical change.
This implies that the relationship between the states of mind and physical properties is that of supervenience. In this case, the mental states are more Nature of the mind Chapter four of the text “Philosophy Here and Now” by Lewis Vaughn gives rise to insights about the nature of the mind.
Color is the first physical property of minerals that varies between same mineral. Color is an apparent aspect in minerals but it proves unreliable in identifying minerals. It occurs due to the minerals light absorbing and reflecting properties. We will write a custom essay sample on Physical and Chemical Properties specifically for you for only $ $/page.
Relationship between Psychological Properties and Physical Properties According to Physicalism ; Properties of Gases ; send me this sample.
Relationship between psychological properties and physical properties according to PhysicalismIn the attempt to bring out the relationship between the physical properties and psychological properties, philosophers such as Lewis used supervenience approach.