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Within the middle dialogues, it is uncontroversial that the Phaedo was written before the Republic, and most scholars think it belongs before the Symposium as well.
His most famous theory, the theory of Forms, is presented in four different places in the dialogue. Plato draws attention at 59b to the fact that he himself was not present during the events retold, suggesting that he wants the dialogue to be seen as work of fiction.
Socrates himself challenges his listeners to provide such defense at 84c-d.
How seriously does Plato take these arguments, and what does the surrounding context contribute to our understanding of them? While this article will concentrate on the philosophical aspects of the Phaedo, readers are advised to pay close attention to the interwoven dramatic features as well.
Outline of the Dialogue The dialogue revolves around the topic of death and immortality: The text can be divided, rather unevenly, into five sections: The former asks the latter, who was present on that day, to recount what took place.
He agrees to tell the whole story from the beginning; within this story the main interlocutors are Socrates, Simmias, and Cebes. Some commentators on the dialogue have taken the latter two characters to be followers of the philosopher Pythagoras B.
They go in to the prison to find Socrates with his wife Xanthippe and their baby, who are then sent away. Socrates, rubbing the place on his leg where his just removed bonds had been, remarks on how strange it is that a man cannot have both pleasure and pain at the same time, yet when he pursues and catches one, he is sure to meet with the other as well.
Cebes asks Socrates about the poetry he is said to have begun writing, since Evenus a Sophist teacher, not present was wondering about this. He then asks Cebes to convey to Evenus his farewell, and to tell him that—even though it would be wrong to take his own life—he, like any philosopher, should be prepared to follow Socrates to his death.
The discussion starts with the question of suicide. If philosophers are so willing to die, asks Cebes, why is it wrong for them to kill themselves?
As Cebes and Simmias immediately point out, however, this appears to contradict his earlier claim that the philosopher should be willing to die: The thesis to be supported is a generalized version of his earlier advice to Evenus: Socrates begins his defense of this thesis, which takes up the remainder of the present section, by defining death as the separation of body and soul.
This definition goes unchallenged by his interlocutors, as does its dualistic assumption that body and soul are two distinct entities. First, the true philosopher despises bodily pleasures such as food, drink, and sex, so he more than anyone else wants to free himself from his body 64da.
They are best approached not by sense perception but by pure thought alone. These entities are granted again without argument by Simmias and Cebes, and are discussed in more detail later.
All told, then, the body is a constant impediment to philosophers in their search for truth: To have pure knowledge, therefore, philosophers must escape from the influence of the body as much as is possible in this life.
Thus, Socrates concludes, it would be unreasonable for a philosopher to fear death, since upon dying he is most likely to obtain the wisdom which he has been seeking his whole life.
Ordinary people are only brave in regard to some things because they fear even worse things happening, and only moderate in relation to some pleasures because they want to be immoderate with respect to others.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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Below is an essay on "My View About Art" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Berger talks about a painting being silent when you approach it if you know nothing about it before you look at it. Education and Plato's Parable of the Cave.
and so forth.
My emphasis in this essay is on Plato's views of education as they unfold in one extended passage in the Republic. Here, in a series of images and commentary on these images, Plato develops some of the central points necessary to sustain the outlandish claim that He has not begun.
Nov 06, · Reflective essays require the writer to open up about their thoughts and emotions in order to paint a true picture of their history, personality, and individual traits.
A book, movie, T.V. show, song, play, or other form of media; Social media post; This type of essay asks you to summarize and then respond to a piece of. The ideal city described in the work is picture perfect because it brings harmony among the different kind of people and the virtues that go hand in hand to bring justice about.
Despite his emphasis of justice as a function of the perfect state, Plato also deals with justice as a personal virtue. Nov 28, · Best Answer: Yes you can, and the key is found within the question itself (it is giving you a clue). Both Plato and Descartes would say that true and reliable knowledge is innate This makes them both rationalist philosophers.
In other words, both reject the material world as Status: Resolved.