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Marcion of Sinope According to Tertullian and other writers of early proto-orthodox Christianitythe movement known as Marcionism began with the teachings and excommunication of Marcion around Marcion was reportedly a wealthy shipowner, the son of a bishop of Sinope of PontusAsia Minor.
He arrived in Rome c. The organization continued in the East for some centuries later, particularly outside the Byzantine Empire in areas which later would be dominated by Manichaeism. Schism within Marcionism[ edit ] By the reign of emperor Commodus —Marcionism was divided into various opinions with various leaders; among whom was Apelles, whom Rhodo describes as: But others, among whom were Potitus and Basilicus, held to two principles, as did Marcion himself.
Others consider that there are not only two, but three natures. Of these, Syneros was the leader and chief. Focusing on the Pauline traditions of the Gospel, Marcion felt that all other conceptions of the Gospel, and especially any association with the Old Testament religion, was opposed to, and a backsliding from, the truth.
He further Origin antithesis 2008 the arguments of Paul regarding law and gospelwrath and grace, works and faith, flesh and spirit, sin and righteousness, death and life, as the essence of religious truth. He ascribed these aspects and characteristics as two principles, the righteous and wrathful God of the Old Testament, who is at the same time identical with the creator of the world, and a second God of the Gospel who is only love and mercy.
As the law which governs the world is inflexible and yet, on the other hand, full of contradictions, just and again brutal, and as the law of the Old Testament exhibits the same features, so the God of creation was to Marcion a being who united in himself the whole gradations of attributes from justice to malevolence, from obstinacy to inconsistency.
Marcion called God, the Stranger God, or the Alien God, in some translations, as this deity had not had any previous interactions with the world, and was wholly unknown.
See also the Unknown God of Hellenism and the Areopagus sermon. In various popular sources, Marcion is often reckoned among the Gnosticsbut as the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 3rd ed. In Henry Wace stated: Also, the Christology of the Marcionites is thought to have been primarily Doceticdenying the human nature of Christ.
This may have been due to the unwillingness of Marcionites to believe that Jesus was the son of both God the Father and the demiurge.
Scholars of Early Christianity disagree on whether to classify Marcion as a Gnostic: Mead claimed Marcionism makes certain points of contact with Gnosticism in its view that the creator of the material world is not the true deity, rejection of materialism and affirmation of a transcendent, purely good spiritual realm in opposition to the evil physical realm, the belief Jesus was sent by the "True" God to save humanity, the central role of Jesus in revealing the requirements of salvation, the belief Paul had a special place in the transmission of this "wisdom", and its docetism.
The pure gospel, however, Marcion found to be everywhere more or less corrupted and mutilated in the Christian circles of his time.
His undertaking thus resolved itself into a reformation of Christendom. This reformation was to deliver Christendom from false Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospelPaul being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had rightly understood the new message of salvation as delivered by Christ.
In Marcion's own view, therefore, the founding of his church—to which he was first driven by opposition—amounts to a reformation of Christendom through a return to the gospel of Christ and to Paul; nothing was to be accepted beyond that.
This of itself shows that it is a mistake to reckon Marcion among the Gnostics. A dualist he certainly was, but he was not a Gnostic. According to Harnack, the sect may have led other Christians to introduce a formal statement of beliefs into their liturgy see Creed and to formulate a canon of authoritative Scripture of their own, thus eventually producing the current canon of the New Testament.
Marcion, on the contrary, treats the Catholic Church as one that 'follows the Testament of the Creator-God,' and directs the full force of his attack against this Testament and against the falsification of the Gospel and of the Pauline Epistles. His polemic would necessarily have been much less simple if he had been opposed to a Church which, by possessing a New Testament side by side with the Old Testament, had ipso facto placed the latter under the shelter of the former.
In particular, he refused to re-admit those who recanted their faith under Roman persecution; see also Lapsi Christian.
It also included ten of the Pauline epistlesin the following order: According to the Muratorian canonit included a Marcionite pseudo-Paul's epistle to the Alexandrians and an epistle to the Laodiceans. Some scholars equate it with the Epistle to the Ephesians, because the latter originally did not contain the words 'in Ephesus', and because it is the only non-pastoral Pauline epistle missing from the Marcionite canon, suggesting Laodiceans was simply Ephesians under another name.
In bringing together these texts, Marcion redacted what is perhaps the first New Testament canon on record, which he called the Gospel and the Apostolikon, which reflects his belief in the writings of Jesus and the apostle Paul respectively.
The Prologues to the Pauline Epistles which are not a part of the text, but short introductory sentences as one might find in modern study Bibles found in several older Latin codicesare now widely believed to have been written by Marcion or one of his followers.
Harnack makes the following claim: De Bruyne has made one of the finest discoveries of later days in proving that those prefaces, which we read first in Codex Fuldensis and then in numbers of later manuscripts, are Marcionite, and that the Churches had not noticed the cloven hoof.Stephanie Brown was born the daughter of the Cluemaster, one of Gotham City third-rate villains.
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Zuma v National Director of Public Prosecutions (/08)  ZAKZHC 71;  1 All SA 54 (N) ; (1) BCLR 62 (N) (12 September ). Marcionism was an Early Christian dualist belief system that originated in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year Marcion believed Jesus was the savior sent by God, and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of attheheels.comnists believed that the wrathful Hebrew God was a separate and lower entity than the all-forgiving.