We have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of the kind of animals that we are.
For large- scale applications of information technology, governments have been called upon to apply procedures like those commonly used in major industrial and social projects.
Thus, commitment might have to be deferred pending dissemination and public discussion of independent environmental or social impact statements. Although organizations that use information technology might see this as interventionism, decision making and approval for major information technology applications may nevertheless become more widely representative.
Closed- system versus open- system thinking Computer- based systems no longer comprise independent machines each serving a single location. The marriage of computing with telecommunications has produced multicomponent systems designed to support all elements of a widely dispersed organization.
Integration hasn't been simply geographic, however. The practice of information systems has matured since the early years when existing manual systems were automated largely without procedural change. Developers now seek payback via the rationalization of existing systems and varying degrees of integration among previously separate functions.
With the advent of strategic and interorganizational systems, economies are being sought at the level of industry sectors, and functional integration increasingly occurs across corporate boundaries. Although programmers can no longer regard the machine as an almost entirely closed system with tightly circumscribed sensory and motor capabilities, many habits of closed- system thinking remain.
Human activities in particular must be perceived as part of the system. This applies to manual procedures within systems such as reading dials on control panelshuman activities on the fringes of systems such as decision making based on computer- collated and - displayed informationand the security of the user's environment automated teller machines, for example.
The focus must broaden from mere technology to technology in use. General systems thinking leads information technologists to recognize that relativity and change must he accommodated.
Today, an artifact may be applied in multiple cultures where language, religion, laws, and customs differ. Over time, the original context may change. For example, models for a criminal justice system - one based on punishment and another based on redemption - may alternately dominate social thinking.
Therefore, complex systems must be capable of adaptation. Blind acceptance of technological and other imperatives Contemporary utilitarian society seldom challenges the presumption that what can be done should be done. Although this technological imperative is less pervasive than people generally think, societies nevertheless tend to follow where their technological capabilities lead.
Related tendencies include the economic imperative what can be done more efficiently should be and the marketing imperative any effective demand should be met. An additional tendency might be called the "information imperative," the dominance of administrative efficiency, information richness, and rational decision making.
However, the collection of personal data has become so pervasive that citizens and employees have begun to object.
The greater a technology's potential to promote change, the more carefully a society should consider the desirability of each application. Complementary measures that may be needed to ameliorate its negative effects should also be considered.The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it.
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The idea of a test that evaluates what I am thinking subconsciously, with results alleging that I /5(1). The 43 rd Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment Assessment as a Social Lever.
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