Posted on December 18, 9 Comments Last week I gave a webinar for the Text and Academic Authors Association on confronting the anxiety of academic writing. I began the presentation by discussing the key dilemma of academic writing: As a result, we often dislike our own writing or find the process of creating acceptable writing unduly onerous.
Although estimates of the number of language minority students in U. In response, a number of program models have been developed to meet the needs of language minority students, many involving the integration of language and content instruction.
In addition, attention to the lack of foreign language proficiency among Americans has led to the development of a number of foreign language programs that integrate academic content into language instruction.
In this approach, the second or foreign language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects; it is the vehicle used for teaching and acquiring subject specific knowledge.
This Digest discusses the rationale for integrating language and content instruction and provides an overview of some of the program models and teaching techniques that focus on this approach. In the United States, Krashen's theory of second language acquisition has influenced the development of integrated instruction at all levels.
Krashen suggests that a second language is most successfully acquired when the conditions are similar to those present in first language acquisition: This suggests that the focus of the second language classroom should be on something meaningful, such as academic content, and that modification of the target language facilitates language acquisition and makes academic content accessible to second language learners.
Cummins argues that individuals develop two types of language proficiency: He suggests that these two types of proficiency vary according to the degree of context available to the individual and the degree of cognitive challenge of the task.
Social language can be acquired in 1 to 2 years, but the level of proficiency needed to read social studies texts or solve mathematics word problems can take 5 to 7 years to develop Collier, Integrated language and content instruction offers a means by which English as a second language ESL students can continue their academic or cognitive development while they are also acquiring academic language proficiency.
It also offers a means by which foreign language students can develop fuller proficiency in the foreign language they are studying. In foreign language or two-way bilingual immersion programs, in which a portion of the curriculum is taught through the foreign language, some type of integrated language and content instruction appears to be essential.
In this approach--also called integrated language and content instruction--ESL, bilingual, or foreign language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing language, content, cognitive, and study skills.
The second language is used as the medium of instruction for mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects. Instruction is usually given by a language teacher or by a combination of the language and content teachers.
This approach involves adapting the language of texts or tasks and use of certain methods familiar to language teachers demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers, or cooperative work to make instruction more accessible to students of different English proficiency levels.
In these programs, a language curriculum is developed around selected topics drawn from one content area e.
The goal is to assist learners in developing general academic language skills through interesting and relevant content. Here, a content curriculum is adapted to accommodate students' limited proficiency in the language of instruction.
This model was originally developed for elementary foreign language immersion programs to enable some portion of the curriculum to be taught through the foreign language Genesee, It is commonly used in immersion and two-way bilingual programs Met, and has been adapted for use in second language programs with large numbers of limited English proficient students of intermediate or advanced English proficiency.
This is the name given to content-centered instruction that involves a conscious effort to integrate language instruction into all other curricular offerings. This may include the development of integrated curricula and some kind of paired or team teaching. In schools where enough students share a common first language, bilingual programs using sheltered instruction have been developed.
In one program, students move from content instruction in their first language to sheltered-content instruction in English, and then to mainstream classes where they are integrated with English-speaking peers.
For schools with insufficient numbers of language minority students to create sheltered language programs, the techniques for sheltering instruction can be implemented in classes with both native and non-native English-speaking students.
This model links a specific language learning course with a content course in which both second language learners and native English speakers are enrolled. The courses share a content base, but the focus of instruction differs. The language teacher emphasizes language skills, such as academic reading or writing, while the content teacher focuses on traditional academic concepts.
This model requires substantial coordination between the language and content teacher; usually the ESL teacher makes the extra effort of becoming familiar with the content. An adjunct program is usually limited to cases where students have language skills that are sufficiently advanced to enable them to participate in content instruction with English speaking students.This paper examines the use of portfolios as pedagogical tools for developing academic writing.
In particular, it considers the value of multi-drafting, where learners reflect on the learning of a text type as well as focusing on micro and macro aspects. Now in its fifth edition, Academic Writing helps international students succeed in writing essays and reports for their English-language academic courses.
Thoroughly revised and updated, it is designed to let teachers and students easily find the topics they need, both in the classroom and for self-study. The effect of the process writing ap- the process-based writing approach on the de- proach on writing success and anxiety.
Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(3): velopment of writing skills of pre-service teach- Creswell J New Technology and the Process Based Approach to Writing Nobody can deny the importance of the writing skill in the learning of English as a foreign language.
In fact, writing is the visual representation of ideas, opinions, information or spoken In school, the writing skill is a prerequisite for learners’ academic success (Morgan.
Process Writing Approach, which allows the written product to be checked and evaluated during the writing process, on students’ writing success and anxiety.
The Process Writing Approach Four different approaches have been proposed for writing: the Schmidt model, the Van Galen model, the Hayes and Flower model, and the Hayes mod-el (Güneş, . Last week I gave a webinar for the Text and Academic Authors Association on confronting the anxiety of academic writing.
Since the presentation, which I’ll embed below, was relatively short, I thought I would use this post to point to the places on the blog where I elaborate on its key points.